You may have encountered rolling-shutter-effect (RSE) when taking photos of a fast moving object, like propellers or a car on the highway. Propellers and cars get distorted or straight lines bend; so what’s going on here?
Most smartphone and digital cameras use so called Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) sensors while many other reflex cameras use CCD pixels (charge-coupled device). I won’t go into any detail on the physical difference between these because in order to understand our RSE we need to look at the light exposure.
With a CCD camera light exposure is what you would expect it to be: shine light on all pixels for x amount of time, then save that and move on. This is called global exposure. However, with the cheaper CMOS pixels the camera scans in horizontal line, usually from top to bottom. If any object in your frame is moving (or if you are) pixels will be exposed at different times thus objects will appear at different places in one snapshot.
Depending on how fast your object is moving in comparison to your cameras screening different patterns will appear
Try this with your smart phone the next time you’re on the highway (not as the driver) and try to figure out how your camera scans; left to right or top to bottom?
Polar lights are one of my favorite phenomena. They are colorful, hard to catch and still not fully understood! But let’s dive into the science behind them!
If this is too much physics for you, skip to the tl;dr a the bottom of the page for some practical takeaways.
We need to start out somewhere very hot, the sun. Here convections of charged particles (plasma) in the outer parts of the sun cause strong magnetic fields. Sometimes these fields move outwards creating rings that act like rubber bands. These will snap now and then, blowing out great amounts of plasma. These events are called solar flares, or when they are big: coronal mass ejections. The frequency of such events is linked to the suns 11-year cycle as the suns inverts its whole magnetic alignment though the intensity of each cycle varies.
We may even head into another Maunder-minimum which would be unfortunate for the science community and everyone who wants to see some aurora. The next peak in sun activity is set for 2023.
As you probably have guessed, these solar flares are part of the so called solar wind which ultimately causes the polar lights. This constant stream of mostly electrons, protons and some nuclei such as helium moves towards earth at speeds between 400 and 700 km/s (250 to 430 mps). Now a complicated process of deflecting, magnetic recombination, particle acceleration and other crazy stuff starts. The whole process hasn’t been understood fully and many effects (or theories) have been shown to play a role but how they all interact with each other is mostly unknown! I will try to map out the clearest elements of this complicated process.
Coming from the sun we encounter the bow shock about 12.000 km (7500 miles) away from earth. Most low energy particles are diverted by the earths outer most magnetic fields and move around to the magnetotail. Some particles move into the polar cusp, creating the so called day-light aurora which we can obviously not see with our eyes. Other particles will move into one of the two Van Allen radiation belts. These belts hold great amounts of plasma and act as a reservoir for the aroura but are also constantly washed away and then refilled by stronger solar flares.
These belts as well as the plasma moving into earth’s atmosphere act in as an first approximation like magnetic bottle. These “bottles” are two magnetic mirrors placed together to create a trap for charged particles. In case of earth’s field, the poles act as the mirrors. When an electron moves in a helical (corkscrew) path along the magnetic field he will eventually approach a pole. Here the magnetic fields become denser and thus creating a backwards force on the particles due to the Lorenz force.
Now there are several conflicting but also non-conflicting theories about why particles on the night side are being accelerate towards the poles which I won’t go into in detail. Fact is that sometimes particles have enough energy to come spiraling as close as 80km (50 miles). This creates a so called auroral zone as seen in this image of the south pole from one of NASA’s satellites. This auroral zone will move towards the equator as long as the particles have enough energy, they will then move to the pole again. So once you’ve experienced some strong polar lights moving southward (if you’re on the north hemisphere), then wait for them to come back!
Generally, we can differ between discrete, often shaped like curtains, and diffuse aurora. The most iconic and frequently seen aurora are green curtains at 100-150km (60-90 miles) due to fairly high concentrated oxygen emitting light at a wavelength of 557.7 nm. These curtains have a sharp cut of at 100km due to a fast concentration drop of oxygen. Slightly below the curtains one may spot some blue due to Nitrogen molecules being the dominant light source. These two colors are considered discrete aurora due to concentration drops or electrons with more or less discrete energy distributions. The most common diffuse aurora is the red emission of oxygen at high levels of altitude. These can be hard to spot by eye because of the dominant green curtains, but can often been seen on the horizon or in pictures due to the cameras better sensitivity (in comparison to our eyes) to red.
Most of these spectral lines are “forbidden”. This is a misleading term; one should rather call them highly improbable, due the selection rules of quantum mechanics. “Normal” emissions function on a nanosecond timescale. The red emission of oxygen however is very slow (107s) therefore this color will only occur in very high altitudes (>150km) where the probability of colliding with another atom is low enough. Otherwise if an excited atom collides, it will transfer energy and will not emit any red light anymore. Of course now and then other colors will appear often due to an overlap of green and blue or red and green etc.
I hope you have enjoyed this little deep dive into the aurora. It is definitely a very active and interesting field of science, be curious and check it out on your own!
Too long, didn’t read:
The next peak of sun activity should be in 2023, so that’s definitely a year to plan some polar vacation. The process of particles like electrons moving from the sun down to our atmosphere is not fully understood. There are indicators for polar lights that you can look up online every night. If you happen to experience strong polar lights moving towards the equator don’t leave! They are probably going to come back to the poles in the next hours.
This technology sounds and looks like it is more fiction than it is science and “Ion engines” are common in the Star Wars universe on TIE-fighters (Twin Ion Engine), but are they real?
Short answer: Yes!
Long answer: Yeeeeeeeeeeees!
The first time ion propulsion has been mentioned is as early as 1906. From then it took a long path to the 1970’s to actually employ this technology as was done on American and on Soviet satellites. Deep Space 1 was NASA’s first interplanetary mission using ion thrusters in 1998.
So if this technology is real, then why aren’t we seeing anything of this when we watch rocket launches now and then?
To get a rocket off the ground and away from earth’s gravity it needs thrust which is the formal term for the force pushing you up. If a spacecraft has an effective thrust of 10 Newton it could accelerate an object with a mass of 1 kg into outer space (considering the gravitational constant g=10 m/s²). Ion thrusters simply have a very low thrust; we’re talking about a maximum of 250 mN! This could carry a rocket weighing about 25 grams. Or in other terms: It would take more than a day to accelerate your car to highway speed with an ion thruster, not taking any resistances into account (of course!).
Before I get into why we even use this propulsion even though it is so weak, I want to take you through a simple explanation of how ion thrusters work. Generally, we can differentiate between electrostatic and electromagnetic thrusters, the former using the Coulomb force and the later using the Lorenz force as the main acceleration mechanism. There are, of course, several different variations but I will only explain one of the most common: The gridded electrostatic ion thruster.
As seen in the diagram, gas is vented into the ion chamber where it is ionized (kick out an electron) by fast electrons coming from the hot cathode on the left. Magnetic coils help hold the ions and electrons in place, as well as help ionize the gas. The ions then move to the positive grid on the right and are then accelerated to about 1 keV and shoot out of the chamber. A second cathode emits electrons into the ion beam in order to compensate for the positive charge leaving the spacecraft and stop the ions from being attracted back to the thruster.
For most thrusters, Xenon is used as a propellant gas. What you are looking for is an easy to ionize and heavy atom because the thrust is proportional to the mass of the accelerated ions. Xenon is also a noble gas and therefore doesn’t erode any parts of the thruster. However, Xenon is globally in short supply and expensive.
Now that we have a crude understanding, we can see how these thrusters are different from conventional rocket propellant. The biggest difference is the effective speed at which particles leave the spacecraft. For conventional rockets, e.g. the Space shuttle, the escaped velocity is around 4.400 m/s (16.000 km/h; 10.000 mph). For our standard ion thruster, the ions are accelerated to about 30.000 m/s! In space exploration the specific impulse of a propellant is very important, that is the total impulse delivered per unit of propellant consumed. If you accelerate your particles to high velocities, every little bit of mass you eject will have a relatively big impact in comparison to lower escape velocities. So ion thrusters have about ten times the specific impulse of conventional rockets which is really important because that simply means you need less propellant. Thus the overall mass of the spacecraft is smaller, reducing the amount of propellant again. This goes on until the spacecraft has no mass at all… just kidding.
There are two reasons conventional rockets don’t just use higher escape velocities as well. Firstly, conventional rockets are like big heat machines and a thing called Carnot’s law limits their exhaust velocity; secondly, the energy you need to accelerate stuff goes with the velocity squared and conventional rockets have limited energy reserves, ion thrusters though basically have unlimited electrical energy from their solar panels!
So in the end, ion thrusters are much more efficient, lighter and precise, but lack the ability to create strong thrust and can only be operated in outer space. A conventional rockets brings a spacecraft to outer space and then the ion thrusters take it from there in a well … slow manner.
This definitely isn’t the only promising technology out there but it is the most practical at the time and has been and will be a crucial part of many space mission.